The waters occupy 95% and 70% of biosphere and earth surface respectively. These waters help human beings a great deal and should be conserved to the maximum; on the contrary, the ocean life is under survival strain. Human being continuously abuses the sea and the living organisms in it through processes like overfishing, pollution through disposing of dirt especially industrial remains in the oceans and plastics from coastal regions residents. A considerable number of aquatic organisms like birds, turtles, fish, and mammals are in jeopardy. The threat of extensive damage to marine life is significantly increasing and this, in the long run, will lead to loss of marine life species and genetic diversity. New manageable approaches should be considered to end the marine life damage with ensuring that the unique features of aquatic ecosystems are restored.
They are several human life and natural factors that affect marine life and stir its extinction. These factors include:
- Species overfishing
Fishing has a drastic effect on our oceans. Increasing demand for fish products and fish meat has led to enhancement of fishing in large scales. Due to this, the big fish population is significantly decreasing with an approximate 90% value from original population every year. This reduction upsets the marine food chain causing the prey population to excessively grow due to lack of predators. The constant reductions of the targeted fish cause fishers to look for other fish species altering the marine ecosystem.
- Organist waste
Organic waste includes sewage runoff and fertilizers from farms. This waste is dumped into the oceans through rivers that have their sources in the oceans and seas. When these wastes are dumped, they cause a huge effect on marine ecosystems. This organic waste disposed of in oceans causes algae to flourish in the oceans. The algae, in turn, consume oxygen meant for the aquatic life species or produce toxins killing of the marine species.
- Greenhouse effect
Oceans absorb most of the greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide that is in the air. These gases combine with seawater reducing its PH. PH affects the acidity of water hence its reduction leads to an increase in acidity. Acidic water, in turn, affects marine plant and animals and also weakens shellfish and coral.
- Dumping and pollution
Human pollution is a significant factor in ocean life. The highest trash found in oceans is that of plastic. The Pacific trash vortex contains an approximate 2.0 million waste in every square mile. Besides the plastic and paper trash, oil spillage from industries causes a significant loss of marine species.
Marine protection starts with you and me. Marine conservation should not only be left as a task for the marine agencies only. Marine conservation should be practised by all regardless of where we live or what we do to earn a living. It is as simple as minding where we dispose our trash. If we all get a marine conservation mindset, then we can be assured that we will have a balanced ecosystem in the oceans.